In mountaineering, people are on the offensive side, and the opponent is nature. There are various factors in nature that are bad for climbers, such as sun, rain, snow, wind, cloudy, cold, and even rolling stones, flash floods, avalanches, and ice falls. Bright and dark cracks and snow cover pose a threat to climbers. Therefore, mountaineers must be skilled and good at using the technical equipment of modern mountaineering. Document.write("");ad_dst = ad_dst+1;

The mountaineering equipment includes special equipment, guarantee equipment and life equipment used by collectives and individuals in mountain climbing activities. It is a material guarantee for mountaineering activities, such as mountain climbing food and fuel.

Technical requirements for climbing equipment:

The technical requirements for mountaineering equipment must first be adapted to the environmental requirements of mountaineering. The design, material selection, and production must be made as light, strong, and efficient as possible, and can be used for multiple purposes, such as ice climbing for ice climbing, and a back-end one. For the shovel head, one for the hammer head, can be used to nail ice nails, but also can be used to shovel ice.

In addition to the compact, light, and professional development of mountaineering tools, food and communication tools are constantly developing toward specialization. For example, in addition to refined high-heat compressed foods and preserved dehydrated vegetables, mountaineers nowadays often carry with them. The “self-heating food” developed for astronauts is lightweight, easy to carry, and has sufficient heat.

Mountaineering equipment

(I) Mountaineering equipment

Special equipment refers to the necessary equipment directly related to mountain climbing activities. Including clothing preparation, technical equipment and camping equipment.

1. Garment preparation is different because of the different environments of competitive mountain climbing and adventure mountain climbing:

(1) Competitive Mountaineering Equipment

Rock underwear is the clothing worn in competitive mountaineering activities. The raw materials are strong, wear-resistant and flexible hair products. Must be tight fit when purchasing, pants, trousers smaller and flexible.

Rock shoes are special shoes for rock climbing. The upper is made of strong, ventilated leather. The sole is a hard rubber and the sole is thicker, which is beneficial to friction.

(2) Adventure Mountaineering Equipment

Warm clothing is used for insulation and cold clothing in mountain climbing activities. Its insulation layer is superior to high quality down fabrics, and its fabrics are light, thin, dense, waterproof and windproof. The color of the clothes is mainly bright, so that it can absorb heat and identify observations on the mountains and under the mountains. In addition to clothing, pants, you can also choose down socks, down gloves and down vest.

Snow coat is made of high quality waterproof nylon material. Hooded hoods, caps, cuffs, trousers can be adjusted tight, with good wind and warm performance.

Basic mountaineering equipment and uses
Hiking shoes

Alpine boots profile [photo]
Alpine Boots

Alpine shoes, also known as hiking shoes, are special shoes for climbing ice and snow mountains. The outer shell is plastic and has felt inside. It is light in material and has good warmth, waterproof, ventilation and other properties. It can also be equipped with leggings and shoe covers to improve its thermal insulation, waterproofing and protection; when walking on ice slopes Also, tie the crampons on the soles.

Bags include backpacks, backpacks and duffel bags.

Protective glasses are used to block the strong sunlight and reflection of snow and ice, to prevent ultraviolet damage to the eyes, generally better with brown lenses. In the high mountain areas above 7000 meters above sea level, special anti-UV snow glasses should be provided.

2. Technical equipment

The equipment used on the climbing shoes when the crampons are climbing on ice and snow is made of lightweight hard metal, which acts as a fixed and non-slippery. There are 8 nails in the forefoot and 4 nails in the back. There are two types of ice climbing crampons and mountain climbing cramps depending on the purpose. The difference is that the former two front teeth are inclined downward, while the latter is relatively flat.

Basic mountaineering equipment and uses
Great ice

Crusades are an indispensable tool for passing ice and snow slopes. There are two types of large hailstones and small hailstones; large hailstones are 50-70cm in length, and small hailstones are about 40cm in height. They are made of high-grade alloys. One is a cross-head or hammer, and the other is a metal tip. Metal tips are divided into three types: technical heads, banana heads and U-shaped heads, of which the U-shaped head belongs to the most advanced technology. Hail is both a technical tool and a protective tool. The difference is that the large hailstones are used for hiking and are used during mountaineering. They use French techniques to climb when encountering ice slopes. Small hailstones are a special tool for ice climbing, and German climbing techniques are used.

The safety belt is composed of a snare, a belt and a clip, and is made of nylon; at the waist, it is a connection device for various protective equipment and human body, and is a protective equipment that must be used when going up and down the mountain.

Basic mountaineering equipment and uses
Chest riser

Basic mountaineering equipment and uses
Right hand riser

The equipment that must be used when the climber climbs the alpine rock wall alone is not only reliable but also safe and reliable. Manufactured from lightweight aluminum.

Basic mountaineering equipment and uses
8 word loop

The descender is a necessary protective gear for descending when climbing alone on a rock wall. The "8-shaped descender" is fast and safe and is made of high-grade aluminum gold.

Iron lock protective device. In the technical operation, some equipments need to be continuously connected and released. In order to avoid cumbersome knot-tying and untying operations and make the action simple and rapid, iron locks must be used; its main purpose is to hook up the risers. , descender, chest strap or master rope, is an advanced aluminum gold product.

The main rope is 40-50m in length, 9-12mm in diameter, and the bearing capacity is more than 1500kg. It is a light and strong nylon product. Different people should be accompanied by different colors of the main rope, in order to identify when used. It is a must-have technical equipment for knot formation, bridge crossing, rock climbing and various protections. In the process of climbing, climbers are generally used by 3-4 people; they are used as main protection ropes during rock climbing and ice climbing.

The auxiliary rope has a smaller diameter than the main rope, about 6-8mm, and a bearing capacity of about 800kg. The material is the same as the main rope and used in conjunction with the main rope.

Hammer is used for high-grade road construction in the ice, rock nails and the establishment of camps, etc., for high-quality stainless steel products. The ice cone is 20-30cm long, generally nail-shaped. The upper part is threaded and the lower part is provided with a groove. When the road is alpine or climbing ice, it is pinned to the ice body and used for erecting the main rope and auxiliary rope.

Rock cones are used when climbing, nailing it to the rock for fixing the rope.

Rock plugs have mechanical plugs and metal plugs. The metal plug has a simple structure, but is a variety of metal hollow blocks of different sizes. The metal plug can be inserted into the metal plug according to the size of the rock seam to fix the main rope. The mechanical plug has elasticity. When it is used, it is pinched. Automatic inflation, tightly stuck in the rock seam.

Snow cones are 20-50cm in length and vary in shape. They are generally triangular in shape and are nailed in the snow and are used to hook the main rope.

The ladder is generally 10m long, ladders are steel ropes, and the ladders are lightweight aluminum alloys.

The metal ladder is 1.5m in length and the upper and lower joints have nuts, which can be connected to 5-6m as needed to climb the cliffs.

Basic mountaineering equipment and uses
helmet

Helmets are used to prevent rolling stones, falling rocks and falling ice, made of hard plastic.

Snow shovel is used when building roads and establishing camps.

Hammers are generally used to drive in and out various steel cones.

Avalanche Ribbon This is a mark for finding victims when encountering an avalanche and other dangers. Made of silk with a small proportion of bright colors. Each is about 5m long and 0.01m wide. Before passing through the avalanche zone, this object is tied to athletes.

3. Camping Equipment

Tent tents can be divided into low mountain tents and alpine tents. Low hill tents are generally made of single-layer materials. Alpine tents are made of double-layer materials with an air layer in the middle to increase their warmth. Generally there is about 4m3 of space in each tent and can live 2-4 people. If the team is larger, tents in the base camp can be made into more practical accommodation tents, cooking tents, medical tents and so on. The shapes of the tops of various tents are preferably in an arc shape because they increase their firmness and practicality. The requirements of the tents are waterproof, insulating and ventilating, and require bright colors and convenient opening and closing of the entrances and exits.

Sleeping bags are made of the same material as down clothing, except that the insulation layer is thicker; the sleeping bags have different insulation designs depending on the climbing environment, from -45° to 0°.

Pads plastic foam products. Mainly used for shop, pad, so as not to affect the climber on the wet.

Cooking utensils are used to boil water and cook, but also to warm. Mainly include stoves, cooking utensils and so on. There are two kinds of gas stoves: gas stoves and gas stoves. At the altitude of 7000 m above sea level where the air is thin, the latter has a good effect. Commonly used gas furnaces are small, light weight, 270g each, and can burn for three hours. There are pots, bowls, spoons, etc., most of which are stainless steel products.

(II) Safeguard Equipment

The protection equipment is not a special product for climbers. It is a spare equipment and equipment that are used to meet various accidents and other purposes, such as oxygen equipment, communication equipment, self-defense tools, transportation equipment, observation instruments, and medical aid equipment.

1. Oxygen equipment

In climbing peaks above 7500m above sea level, oxygen equipment is generally required to overcome altitude oxygen deficiency and medical emergency. Oxygen equipment is generally composed of three parts: an air reservoir, an indicating device, and a mask. The air reservoir is a container for storing oxygen, and the cylinder wall is made of a light and high-pressure resistant material. The indicating device includes two parts, a barometer and an adjuster. The former indicates the oxygen storage capacity in the cylinder, and the latter controls and indicates the flow rate of oxygen. The mask is made up of the mask and the lower cushion. The mask is worn on the face and the mouth, nose and oxygen device are sealed into a system. The oxygen is absorbed through the buffer and the skin.

2. Communication equipment

Used for liaison between climbers and base camps and base camps and nearby cities. The contact between the climber and the base camp is preferably made using a high-performance small walkie-talkie. In addition, in liaison with the base camp, climbers should be as familiar with and master some primitive, basic, and simple means of communication, such as semaphores, lanterns, whistle, fireworks and so on. To this end, it is necessary to pay attention to the provision of flags, flashlights, signal guns, whistles, and fireworks in equipment. In some special circumstances, burning clothing can also be used as a sign of communication.

(III) Daily Equipment

Daily equipment is life equipment and supplies. For a mountaineering activity, climbers spend a relatively long time in high mountains, sometimes up to two months, and all kinds of supplies must be carried. Daily equipment includes daily necessities, hygiene products, simple tools, standing medicines, maps, compasses, sewing supplies, lighting supplies, and photographic equipment. (Wang Bing)

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